Melanoma: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment (Infographic)

Worldwide Incidence of Melanoma

Etiology and Risk Factors

  • Sun exposure
  • Severe sunburn at a young age
  • Features associated with a fair complexion
  • Number of melanocytic nevi
  • Presence and number of dysplastic nevi
  • Positive family history


Diagnosis

  • Physical examination of the suspicious lump or mole.
  • Changes in the size, shape, colour, or feel of a mole is often the first warning sign of melanoma
  • The principle screening characteristics of melanoma are included in the acronym ACBDE.
  • This helps doctors determine which lesions are suspicious and should be biopsied.
  • The ABCDE acronym can also be used by individuals when they are checking themselves for suspicious spots.

Diagnosis and Work-up of Melanoma

Melanoma Diagnosis and Work up

Melanoma Prognosis Stage

Biomarker

  • BRAF gene mutation testing has emerged as an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of melanoma
  • For patients with BRAF mutated tumors, the recommended treatment is a BRAF inhibitor

Treatment

  • Early Stage (Stage I & II): cured by surgery, no role for systemic therapy
  • Late Stage: Unresectable or Metastatic disease: Systemic therapy
  • – Chemotherapy
    – Targeted therapy
    – Immunotherapy



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